Siddha and Ayurveda

Siddha maruthuvam or siddha medicine or Paatti Vaaiththiyam or Tamil Medicine is one of the oldest system of medicine practiced by the Dravidian society and was believed that they were founded by Chith-thars (men with high knowledge - supermen) several centuries ago.

The systems of Tamil Medicine, Siddha and Ayurveda are very much similar. In all the three systems, the basic of treatment is based on the symptoms of the ill and treatment is provided for the symptom.

Disease and Cause

When the normal equilibrium of three humors (vatha, pitha and kapha) is disturbed, disease is caused. The factors, which affect this equilibrium, are environment, climatic conditions, diet, physical activities, and stress. Under normal conditions, the ratio between these three humors (vatha, pitha and kapha) is 4:2:1 respectively.


In Tamil Medicine, diseases are diagnosed only with the help of the symptom that the patient says. Other factors that help in diagnosis are physical examination, pulse reading, tongue, color, speech, eyes, faces and urine, again the external symptoms!

Basic examination of siddha medicine

na (tongue): black in vatha, yellow or red in pitha, white in kapha, ulcerated in anaemia.

varna (colour): dark in vatha, yellow or red in pitha, pale in kapha

svara (voice): normal in vatha, high pitched in pitha, low pitched in kapha, slurred in alcoholism.

kan (eyes): muddy conjunctiva, yellowish or red in pitha, pale in kapha.

sparisam (touch): dry in vatha, warm in pitha, chill in kapha, sweating in different parts of the body.

mala (stool): black stools indicate vatha, yellow pitha, pale in kapha, dark red in ulcer and shiny in terminal illness.

neer (urine): early morning urine is examined; straw colour indicates indigestion, reddish yellow excessive heat, rose in blood pressure, saffron colour in jaundice and looks like meat washed water in renal disease.

nadi (pulse): the confirmatory method recorded on the radial artery.


The drugs used by the Siddhars could be classified into three groups: thavaram (herbal product), thathu (inorganic substances) and jangamam (animal products). The thathu drugs are further classified as uppu (water soluble inorganic substances or drugs that give out vapour when put into fire), pashanam (drugs not dissolved in water but emit vapour when fired), uparasam (similar to pashanam but differ in action), loham (not dissolved in water but melt when fired), rasam (drugs which are soft) and ghandhagam (drugs which are insoluble in water, like sulphor).


The treatment in Siddha medicine is aimed at keeping the three humors in equilibrium and maintenance of seven elements. So proper diet, medicine and a disciplined regimen of life are advised for a healthy living and to restore equilibrium of humors in diseased condition. The treatment should be commenced as early as possible after assessing the course and cause of the disease. There are the easy treatments now days, even severe diseases can be cured easily.

According to the Siddha medicine system diet and life style play a major role not only in health but also in curing diseases.

This concept of the Siddha medicine is termed as pathya and apathya, which is essentially a list of do's and don’ts.


Human body is remaining same as from stone-age. Modern technologies and civilization make changes to this world. Diagnosis, treatment and medication improved a lot which is suitable for the current situation.


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